The role of Toll-like receptors 3 and 9 in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Dec;1150:146-8. doi: 10.1196/annals.1447.039.


Innate immunity is mediated, at least in part, through a number of receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are activated by different microbial stimuli. Adaptive immunity, including autoimmunity, follows the innate response in a more specific manner. To investigate the roles of TLR3 and TLR9 in the development of type 1 diabetes, we generated NOD mice that are deficient in TLR3 and 9, respectively. There was no obvious difference in the incidence of spontaneous diabetes between TLR3-deficient mice and TLR3 heterozygous mice. However, TLR9-deficient mice were markedly protected from the disease compared to TLR9 heterozygous mice. Our results suggest that different TLRs play a varying role in autoimmune diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / pathology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred NOD
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3 / physiology*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9 / physiology*


  • TLR3 protein, mouse
  • Tlr9 protein, mouse
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9