RNA recognition and signal transduction by RIG-I-like receptors

Immunol Rev. 2009 Jan;227(1):54-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00727.x.


Viral infection is detected by cellular sensor molecules as foreign nucleic acids and initiates innate antiviral responses, including the activation of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN). Recent identification of cytoplasmic viral sensors, such as retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), highlights their significance in the induction of antiviral innate immunity. Moreover, it is intriguing to understand how they can discriminate endogenous RNA from foreign viral RNA and initiate signaling cascades leading to the induction of type I IFNs. This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular machinery underlying RNA recognition and subsequent signal transduction by RLRs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DEAD Box Protein 58
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases / chemistry
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases / immunology
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases / metabolism*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Interferon Type I / metabolism
  • Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1
  • RNA 5' Terminal Oligopyrimidine Sequence / immunology*
  • RNA Helicases / chemistry
  • RNA Helicases / immunology
  • RNA Helicases / metabolism*
  • RNA Virus Infections / immunology*
  • RNA Virus Infections / physiopathology
  • RNA Virus Infections / prevention & control
  • RNA Viruses / physiology
  • RNA, Viral / immunology*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / immunology
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Species Specificity


  • Interferon Type I
  • RNA, Viral
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • DHX58 protein, human
  • DDX58 protein, human
  • IFIH1 protein, human
  • DEAD Box Protein 58
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases
  • Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1
  • RNA Helicases