Mechanisms of regulated unconventional protein secretion

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Feb;10(2):148-55. doi: 10.1038/nrm2617. Epub 2008 Dec 24.


Most eukaryotic proteins are secreted through the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi secretory pathway. However, cytoplasmic, nuclear and signal-peptide-containing proteins have been shown to reach the cell surface by non-conventional transport pathways. The mechanisms and molecular components of unconventional protein secretion are beginning to emerge, including a role for caspase 1 and for the peripheral Golgi protein GRASP, which could function as a plasma membrane tether for membrane compartments during specific stages of development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caspase 1 / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Golgi Apparatus / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Protein Sorting Signals
  • Protein Transport / physiology
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Secretory Pathway / physiology*


  • Protein Sorting Signals
  • Proteins
  • Caspase 1