Total syntheses of casuarine and its 6-O-alpha-glucoside: complementary inhibition towards glycoside hydrolases of the GH31 and GH37 families

Chemistry. 2009;15(7):1627-36. doi: 10.1002/chem.200801578.


Total synthesis of naturally occurring casuarine (1) and the first total synthesis of casuarine 6-O-alpha-glucoside (2) were achieved through complete stereoselective nitrone cycloaddition, Tamao-Fleming oxidation and selective alpha-glucosylation as key steps. Biological assays of the two compounds proved their strong and selective inhibitory properties towards glucoamylase NtMGAM and trehalase Tre37A, respectively, which place them among the most powerful inhibitors of these enzymes. The structural determination of the complexes of NtMGAM with 1 and of Tre37A with 2 revealed interesting similarities in the catalytic sites of these two enzymes which belong to different families and clans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaloids / chemical synthesis*
  • Alkaloids / metabolism*
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism*
  • Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase / metabolism
  • Glucosides / chemical synthesis*
  • Glucosides / metabolism*
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Kinetics
  • Pyrroles / chemical synthesis*
  • Pyrroles / metabolism*
  • Trehalase / metabolism


  • Alkaloids
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Glucosides
  • Pyrroles
  • casuarine
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • Trehalase
  • Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase