Measurement of short-chain carbohydrates in common Australian vegetables and fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jan 28;57(2):554-65. doi: 10.1021/jf802700e.


Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are short-chain carbohydrates that can be poorly absorbed by the small intestine and may have a wide range of effects on gastrointestinal processes. FODMAPs include lactose, fructose in excess of glucose, fructans and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, nystose, kestose), galactooligosaccharides (GOS, raffinose, stachyose), and sugar polyols (sorbitol, mannitol). This paper describes an analytical approach based on HPLC with ELSD that quantifies the major FODMAPs in 45 vegetables and 41 fruits. Sorbitol and/or mannitol were measured in 18 vegetables (range = 0.09-2.96 g/100 g of fw), raffinose and/or stachyose in 7 vegetables (0.08-0.68 g/100 g of fw), and nystose and/or kestose in 19 vegetables (0.02-0.71 g/100 g of fw). Apple, pear, mango, clingstone peach, and watermelon all contained fructose in excess of glucose. Sorbitol was measured in 15 fruits (0.53-5.99 g/100 g of fw), mannitol was found in 2 fruits, and nystose or kestose was measured in 8 fruits. Understanding the importance of dietary FODMAPs will be greatly assisted by comprehensive food composition data.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Australia
  • Carbohydrates / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Vegetables / chemistry*


  • Carbohydrates
  • Polymers
  • polyol