Effects of the loss of Atox1 on the cellular pharmacology of cisplatin

J Inorg Biochem. 2009 Mar;103(3):333-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.11.012. Epub 2008 Nov 30.


Previous work has demonstrated that the copper (Cu) transporters Ctr1, Atp7a and Atp7b regulate the cellular pharmacology of cisplatin (CDDP) by mediating its uptake and efflux. It was also shown that, in the process of uptake by Ctr1, CDDP triggers the rapid proteasomal degradation of its own transporter. The current study examined the role of the metallochaperone Atox1 in the regulation of uptake, efflux and subcellular distribution of CDDP by using a pair of fibroblast cell lines established from Atox1(+/+) and Atox1(-/-) mice. Atox1 is a metallochaperone that is known to play a central role in distributing Cu within the cells and was recently shown to act as a Cu-dependent transcription factor. Loss of Atox1 increased Cu accumulation and reduced efflux. In contrast, loss of Atox1 reduced the influx of CDDP and subsequent accumulation in vesicular compartments and in DNA. Loss of Atox1 was found to block the CDDP-induced down regulation of Ctr1. Ctr1 was found to be polyubiquitinated in an Atox1-dependent manner during CDDP exposure. In conclusion, Atox1 is required for the polyubiquitination of Ctr1 and the Ctr1-mediated uptake of CDDP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biological Transport
  • Cation Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Cation Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Cisplatin / metabolism
  • Cisplatin / pharmacology*
  • Copper / pharmacology
  • Copper Transport Proteins
  • DNA Adducts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Chaperones / genetics
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism*
  • Polyubiquitin / metabolism
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism*
  • Ubiquitination


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Atox1 protein, mouse
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Copper Transport Proteins
  • DNA Adducts
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Polyubiquitin
  • Copper
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • Cisplatin