Caloramator australicus sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium from the Great Artesian Basin of Australia

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Jan;59(Pt 1):95-101. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.000802-0.


A strictly anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain RC3T, was isolated from microbial mats colonizing thermal waters of a run-off channel formed by free-flowing waters from a bore well (registered no. 17263) of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. The slightly curved rods (2.5-4.2x0.8-1.0 microm) of strain RC3T stained Gram-positive and grew optimally in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose medium at 60 degrees C (range 45-70 degrees C) and pH 7 (range pH 5-9). Strain RC3T grew poorly on yeast extract (0.2 %) but did not grow on tryptone (0.2 %) as a sole carbon source; yeast extract was required for growth on other energy sources, which included glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose, mannose, cellobiose, cellulose, starch, amylopectin, xylan, peptone, amyl media (Research Achievement), threonine and pyruvate but did not include arabinose, ribose, lactose, CM-cellulose, myo-inositol, mannitol, chitin, casein, formate, acetate, succinate, propionate, lactate, benzoate, glycerol, ethanol, Casamino acids, arginine, alanine, serine, glycine, glutamine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine or aspartate. The end products of glucose fermentation were ethanol and acetate. In the presence of 0.2 % yeast extract, iron(III), manganese(IV) and elemental sulfur were reduced but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, nitrate or nitrite. Iron(III) was also reduced in the presence of peptone, tryptone, amyl media, threonine and glycerol but not chitin, xylan, pectin, starch, pyruvate, acetate, benzoate, lactate, propionate, succinate, inositol, ethanol, mannitol, arginine, glutamine or serine. Strain RC3T was not able to utilize molecular hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide in the presence or absence of iron(III). In the presence of iron(III) and glycerol, increased concentrations of Fe(II) corresponded to increased cell numbers, demonstrating that strain RC3(T) was able to conserve energy to support growth from the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ampicillin and NaCl concentrations greater than 2 % inhibited growth. The G+C content of the DNA was 34+/-1 mol% as determined by the thermal denaturation (Tm) method. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain RC3T was affiliated to Caloramator fervidus (95.8 % similarity to the type strain) and to other Caloramator species (average similarity of 91.6 %) within the phylum Firmicutes. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain RC3T should be classified in the genus Caloramator as a representative of a novel species, Caloramator australicus sp. nov. The type strain is RC3T (=JCM 1508T =KCTC 5601T).

MeSH terms

  • Australia
  • Bacteria, Anaerobic / classification*
  • Bacteria, Anaerobic / genetics
  • Bacteria, Anaerobic / isolation & purification
  • Bacteria, Anaerobic / physiology
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Culture Media
  • DNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • DNA, Ribosomal / analysis
  • Fresh Water / microbiology*
  • Genes, rRNA
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods / classification*
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods / genetics
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods / isolation & purification
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods / metabolism
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Phenotype
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Species Specificity


  • Culture Media
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S