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, 4 (1), e4153

Can Playing the Computer Game "Tetris" Reduce the Build-Up of Flashbacks for Trauma? A Proposal From Cognitive Science

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Can Playing the Computer Game "Tetris" Reduce the Build-Up of Flashbacks for Trauma? A Proposal From Cognitive Science

Emily A Holmes et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Background: Flashbacks are the hallmark symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Although we have successful treatments for full-blown PTSD, early interventions are lacking. We propose the utility of developing a 'cognitive vaccine' to prevent PTSD flashback development following exposure to trauma. Our theory is based on two key findings: 1) Cognitive science suggests that the brain has selective resources with limited capacity; 2) The neurobiology of memory suggests a 6-hr window to disrupt memory consolidation. The rationale for a 'cognitive vaccine' approach is as follows: Trauma flashbacks are sensory-perceptual, visuospatial mental images. Visuospatial cognitive tasks selectively compete for resources required to generate mental images. Thus, a visuospatial computer game (e.g. "Tetris") will interfere with flashbacks. Visuospatial tasks post-trauma, performed within the time window for memory consolidation, will reduce subsequent flashbacks. We predicted that playing "Tetris" half an hour after viewing trauma would reduce flashback frequency over 1-week.

Methodology/principal findings: The Trauma Film paradigm was used as a well-established experimental analog for Post-traumatic Stress. All participants viewed a traumatic film consisting of scenes of real injury and death followed by a 30-min structured break. Participants were then randomly allocated to either a no-task or visuospatial ("Tetris") condition which they undertook for 10-min. Flashbacks were monitored for 1-week. Results indicated that compared to the no-task condition, the "Tetris" condition produced a significant reduction in flashback frequency over 1-week. Convergent results were found on a clinical measure of PTSD symptomatology at 1-week. Recognition memory between groups did not differ significantly.

Conclusions/significance: Playing "Tetris" after viewing traumatic material reduces unwanted, involuntary memory flashbacks to that traumatic film, leaving deliberate memory recall of the event intact. Pathological aspects of human memory in the aftermath of trauma may be malleable using non-invasive, cognitive interventions. This has implications for a novel avenue of preventative treatment development, much-needed as a crisis intervention for the aftermath of traumatic events.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Study design overview.
Participants completed a well-established experimental analog for PTSD, the trauma film paradigm. All participants viewed a traumatic film consisting of scenes of real injury and death and had a 30-min structured break. Participants were randomly allocated to either a no-task or visuospatial condition which they undertook for 10-min. Flashbacks (involuntary memories) were monitored for 1-week using a daily diary. Then participants returned to the laboratory for an assessment of clinical symptomatology relating to the flashbacks as well as a test of voluntary memory (recognition memory).
Figure 2
Figure 2. Flashback frequency over 1- week.
As predicted, there was a significant reduction in the number of flashbacks over 1-week in the visuospatial condition compared to no-task condition, t(38) = 2.87 (mean+/−sem).
Figure 3
Figure 3. Clinical symptomatology at 1-week.
Impact of Event Scale scores at 1-week indicated significantly lower impairment in the visuospatial condition compared to no-task condition, t(38) = 2.47 (mean+/−sem).

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