Patients receiving bone marrow transplants are at risk of life-threatening infections early post-transplant. This predisposition results from extensive mucosal damage and severe granulocytopenia. Common causes of infection include bacteria and fungi. Infections with opportunistic pathogens occur later and are associated with defects in cellular and/or humoral immunity. The most common sites of infections are the gastrointestinal tract, oropharynx, lung, skin and indwelling vascular catheters. Empiric approaches designed to treat common bacterial and fungal pathogens are generally effective as are measures designed to prevent dissemination of infections. These approaches are also used to prevent fungal infections.