The effects of fucoidan and L-fucose, a fundamental major component of fucoidan, on the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) in LLCMK(2) cells were investigated. Fucoidan inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption, but L-fucose only partly inhibited both. Virus RNA was not detected in the hPIV-2 infected cells cultured with fucoidan. However, L-fucose did not inhibit virus RNA synthesis. Indirect immunofluorescence study showed that virus protein synthesis was inhibited by fucoidan, but not by L-fucose. Furthermore, using a recombinant, green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, it was found that virus entry was inhibited by fucoidan, but not by L-fucose. These results suggested that fucoidan inhibited virus adsorption to the surface of the cells by binding to the cell surface and prevented infection, indicating that the sulfated polysaccharide form was important for the inhibition by fucoidan.