Objective: Increased urinary albumin excretion rates have been linked to nephropathy and macrovascular disease. We here describe the baseline prevalence and effect of Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) interventions on the development and reversal of elevated albumin excretion.
Research design and methods: Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACRs) were calculated from untimed urine collections. Analyses compared participants by treatment group, diabetes and hypertension status, and use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
Results: Elevated ACR levels (>or=30 mg/g creatinine) were present at baseline in 198 (6.2%) of 3,188 participants: placebo 5.3%, metformin 6.5%, and intensive lifestyle (ILS) 6.8%. Of the 2,802 with ACR measurements at baseline and at the end of the study, the percentage with elevated levels declined (incident and regression) from 6.2 to 6.1%, with no significant differences between the groups even with adjustment for ACE inhibitor and ARB use. The odds of developing an elevated ACR were 59% higher for a participant who developed diabetes compared with one who did not.
Conclusions: At entry into the DPP, an elevated ACR was present in 6.2%. Despite the marked decrease in progression to diabetes and the improvement in insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk markers in the ILS and metformin groups, there was no improvement in ACR, on average, in those two groups. However, the frequency of an elevated ACR was higher in participants who developed diabetes. An increased ACR may have multiple causes, thus obscuring the improvements that might have been expected with the reduction in insulin resistance seen in the DPP.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00004992.