Study results of variations in the X chromosome are useful tools in researching the genetic diversity of human populations and individual identification. We developed a 13 X chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system (DXS6807, DXS8378, DSX9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05, HPRTB, DXS8377, DXS7423) amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples of 113 male and 108 female Taiwanese Han subjects were successfully analyzed using this 13 X-STR multiplex system. The distributions of allele frequencies were examined for independence. DXS8377, DXS101, DXS6789, and DXS6809 were found to be the most polymorphic markers in this study. High values of discrimination power and mean exclusion chance without significant evidence of association between these markers were obtained. In conclusion, this 13 X chromosomal STR multiplex system offers considerable forensic efficiency and may be useful in forensic identification casework.