Cadmium concentration in sea bottom sediment and its potential risk in the upper Gulf of Thailand

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2009 Feb 15;44(3):244-8. doi: 10.1080/10934520802597796.


Untreated or partially treated waste water discharge from industrial and domestic sources entering the Upper Gulf of Thailand have been reported to increase cadmium concentration in bottom sediment. This study was directed at providing a better understanding of cadmium transformation in the sediment from the area. Sediment samples collected from Chao Phraya River mouth (CPY), Bang Pakong River mouth (BPK) and Klong Dan estuary (KD) located in the Upper Gulf of Thailand were analyzed for cadmium concentration in various sediment particle size fractions. Using laboratory microcosms, cadmium release from sediment as affected by salinity and sediment redox condition was studied. A higher concentration of cadmium (0.2-0.6 microg/g dry weight) was measured in finer sediment particle size fractions (<0.075 mm) as compared to courser fractions at all sampling stations. Cadmium release from the sediment to water was influenced by both salinity and redox condition. Sediment was spiked with 10 ppm cadmium which is the cadmium level in sediment adopted by the Australia and New Zealand sediment quality guidelines which can cause adverse environmental impacts. Experiments conducted showed soluble cadmium concentration at sediment oxidation reduction conditions representative of bottom sediment were at levels that can adversely impact aquatic organisms, according to the PCADMIUM water quality guideline. In Thailand, there is no sediment quality guideline. Based on these experiments, 10 ppm of cadmium in sediment was recommended as a regulatory guidelines for allowable levels of cadmium in sediment in the study area.

MeSH terms

  • Cadmium / analysis*
  • Geologic Sediments / chemistry*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Particle Size
  • Seawater
  • Sodium Chloride / analysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*


  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Cadmium
  • Sodium Chloride