The experience of the authors with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the uterine cervix from 1980 to 1986 included five Ann Arbor Stage IE cases successfully managed by meticulous staging and radiation therapy. The clinicopathologic features of the patients are described and compared with 38 previously reported Stage IE cases. When all 43 patients were evaluated, the median age was 40 years of age (range, 20 to 80 years of age) and 77% were premenopausal. Most patients (74%) reported abnormal vaginal bleeding, although approximately 20% were asymptomatic. The primary cervical tumors were typically of large size, with half exceeding 4 cm in diameter. Using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system for staging cervical cancer, stage distribution was 44% Stage I, 42% Stage II, 12% Stage III, and 2% Stage IV. Histologically, approximately 70% were of the diffuse, large cell type (Working Formulation). External beam radiation therapy supplemented by brachytherapy or hysterectomy was used for 76% of the patients reviewed. There was only one treatment failure among the 28 patients whose treatment included radiation and whose cases were followed for at least 2 years. This experience and a review of the literature indicate that most cases of primary lymphoma of the uterine cervix are Ann Arbor Stage IE, and can be cured with traditional combinations of surgery and radiation therapy after careful evaluation.