Acute bronchiolitis and croup

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Feb;56(1):119-33, x-xi. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2008.10.007.


Croup and acute bronchiolitis are common forms of virally induced respiratory disease in infancy and early childhood. There is good evidence that corticosteroids can ameliorate disease severity and alter the natural history of symptoms in patients who have croup and that temporary symptomatic benefit can be obtained from the use of nebulized adrenaline. The principle weakness when reviewing therapeutic interventions for acute bronchiolitis is the lack of a clear diagnostic test or definition. Current evidence suggests that oxygen is the only useful pharmacologic agent for correcting hypoxia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adrenergic Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Bronchiolitis / diagnosis*
  • Bronchiolitis / drug therapy
  • Bronchiolitis / virology
  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Croup / diagnosis*
  • Croup / drug therapy
  • Croup / virology
  • Epinephrine / therapeutic use
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Terminology as Topic


  • Adrenergic Agonists
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Epinephrine