Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate horizontal relapse and its causes in bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomy (BSSO) with rigid internal fixation of different types.
Materials and methods: A search of the literature was performed in the databases PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar Beta. From 488 articles identified, 24 articles were finally included. Six studies were prospective, and 18 were retrospective. The range of postoperative study records was 6 months to 12.7 years.
Results: The short-term relapse for bicortical screws was between 1.5% and 32.7%, for miniplates between 1.5% and 18.0%, and for bioresorbable bicortical screws between 10.4% and 17.4%, at point B. The long-term relapse for bicortical screws was between 2.0% and 50.3%, and for miniplates between 1.5% and 8.9%, at point B.
Conclusions: BSSO for mandibular advancement is a good treatment option for skeletal Class II, but seems less stable than BSSO setback in the short and long terms. Bicortical screws of titanium, stainless steel, or bioresorbable material show little difference regarding skeletal stability compared with miniplates in the short term. A greater number of studies with larger skeletal long-term relapse rates were evident in patients treated with bicortical screws instead of miniplates. The etiology of relapse is multifactorial, involving the proper seating of the condyles, the amount of advancement, the soft tissue and muscles, the mandibular plane angle, the remaining growth and remodeling, the skill of the surgeon, and preoperative age. Patients with a low mandibular plane angle have increased vertical relapse, whereas patients with a high mandibular plane angle have more horizontal relapse. Advancements in the range of 6 to 7 mm or more predispose to horizontal relapse. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, further short-term and long-term research into BSSO advancement with rigid internal fixation should exclude additional surgery, ie, genioplasty or maxillary surgery, and include a prospective study or randomized clinical trial design with correlation statistics.