To study the impact of auto-SCT on the outcomes in African Americans (AA) with multiple myeloma (MM), we evaluated 101 consecutive AA patients who underwent auto-SCT. The median PFS and OS were 15.6 and 50.8 months, respectively. The median OS from diagnosis was 60 months. Traditional pre and post transplant prognostic variables earlier examined in Caucasian Americans (CA), including beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), chromosome 13 deletion, CR status after auto-SCT, gender, stage, Ig subtype, time to transplant, number of prior regimens and presence of lytic lesions, were not predictive of improved PFS or OS on univariate analysis. Age, lower CD34 cell dose infused, history of palliative radiation therapy (XRT) prior to auto-SCT and refractory disease at the time of auto-SCT were predictive of inferior PFS. History of palliative XRT was the only predictive factor of inferior PFS and OS after auto-SCT on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, MM in AA tends to relapse early after auto-SCT. It is unclear whether early relapses impact OS. Common prognostic peritransplant variables known in CA with MM may not be applicable to AA with MM.