Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) serve as important animal models for human disease and vaccine research. Although Chinese rhesus macaques are the same species as those of Indian origin, they are from a geographically separated population and possess divergent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I A alleles. In an analysis of 65 Chinese rhesus macaques, 17 novel Mamu-A alleles were identified and deposited under the following accession numbers: EU252155-158, EU262737-741, EU418504-505, EU422996, EU418506, EU753185-187, and EU828528. The discovery of these additional MHC class I A sequences indicates a greater diversity and polymorphism of Chinese rhesus macaques in different geographic locations. As the set of Mamu-A alleles in Chinese rhesus macaques differs from the alleles of Indian animals, more work still needs to be carried out to identify these new allele-restricted immune responses with regard to vaccine studies.