Two viruses that cause salivary gland hypertrophy in Glossina pallidipes and Musca domestica are related and form a distinct phylogenetic clade

J Gen Virol. 2009 Feb;90(Pt 2):334-346. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.006783-0.


Glossina pallidipes and Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (GpSGHV and MdSGHV) replicate in the nucleus of salivary gland cells causing distinct tissue hypertrophy and reduction of host fertility. They share general characteristics with the non-occluded insect nudiviruses, such as being insect-pathogenic, having enveloped, rod-shaped virions, and large circular double-stranded DNA genomes. MdSGHV measures 65x550 nm and contains a 124 279 bp genome (approximately 44 mol% G+C content) that codes for 108 putative open reading frames (ORFs). GpSGHV, measuring 50x1000 nm, contains a 190 032 bp genome (28 mol% G+C content) with 160 putative ORFs. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrates that 37 MdSGHV ORFs have homology to 42 GpSGHV ORFs, as some MdSGHV ORFs have homology to two different GpSGHV ORFs. Nine genes with known functions (dnapol, ts, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, mmp, p74, odv-e66 and helicase-2), a homologue of the conserved baculovirus gene Ac81 and at least 13 virion proteins are present in both SGHVs. The amino acid identity ranged from 19 to 39 % among ORFs. An (A/T/G)TAAG motif, similar to the baculovirus late promoter motif, was enriched 100 bp upstream of the ORF transcription initiation sites of both viruses. Six and seven putative microRNA sequences were found in MdSGHV and GpSGHV genomes, respectively. There was genome. Collinearity between the two SGHVs, but not between the SGHVs and the nudiviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes clustered both SGHVs in a single clade separated from the nudiviruses and baculoviruses. Although MdSGHV and GpSGHV are different viruses, their pathology, host range and genome composition indicate that they are related.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Cytomegalovirus / classification
  • Cytomegalovirus / genetics*
  • Cytomegalovirus / pathogenicity*
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Genes, Viral
  • Genome, Viral
  • Houseflies / virology*
  • Hypertrophy / virology
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Salivary Glands / pathology*
  • Salivary Glands / virology*
  • Tsetse Flies / virology*
  • Virion / genetics*
  • Virion / pathogenicity


  • DNA, Viral