Glycation endproducts, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts and cytokines in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009 Feb;61(2):175-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2008.00679.x.


Problem: Cytokines, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and their receptor RAGE have been recently suggested to play a role in human pregnancy. In this study, we sought to determine the alterations of plasma AGEs, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), and proinflammatory cytokines in normal pregnancies and those complicated with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Method of study: These parameters were measured in samples from healthy non-pregnant (C), diabetic non-pregnant (D), healthy pregnant (HP), and pregnant diabetic (DP) women.

Results: In the first trimester, DP showed lower sRAGE and higher AGEs compared to HP. In the DP group, significant negative correlations were seen between TNF-alpha and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IotaL-6 in the first trimester and sRAGE in the third trimester. LPS-stimulated IL-12 was positively correlated with levels of AGEs in the third trimester.

Conclusion: We detected several differences in the levels of AGEs, sRAGE, and proinflammatory cytokines between euglycemic and diabetic pregnancies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / blood*
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / blood*
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cytokines
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human