Transrectal ultrasound-guided systemic biopsy is the recommended method in most cases with suspicion of prostate cancer. Transrectal periprostatic injection with a local anesthetic may be offered as effective analgesia; periprostatic nerve block with 1% or 2% lidocaine is the recommended form of pain control. On initial biopsy, a minimum of 10 systemic, laterally directed cores is recommended, with more cores in larger glands. Extended prostate biopsy schemes, which require cores weighted more laterally at the base (lateral horn) and medially to the apex, show better cancer detection rates without increasing adverse events. Transition zone biopsies are not recommended in the first set of biopsies, owing to low detection rates. One set of repeat biopsies is warranted in cases with persistent indication. Saturation biopsy (>/=20 cores) should be reserved for repeat biopsy in patients who have negative results on initial biopsy but who are still strongly suspected to have prostate cancer.
Keywords: Anesthesia; Biopsy; Nomograms; Prostate cancer; Prostate-specific antigen; Transrectal ultrasound.