Since the introduction of computed tomography (CT) over 30 years ago, the challenge of imaging the beating heart has been a driving force in the innovation of cardiac CT. Imaging the anatomy and physiology of the heart demands temporal, spatial and contrast resolution is arguably greater than for any other organ system in the body. Great progress has been achieved in using CT to evaluate coronary artery stenosis and plaque composition. In addition, techniques to evaluate cardiac function, including myocardial perfusion, regional ventricular wall motion, systolic thickening, ejection fraction, valve function, and congenital cardiac abnormalities are also gaining a foothold in clinical practice as adjuncts to or replacements for invasive coronary angiography, cardiac single photon emission CT (SPECT) imaging, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This review summarizes the major accomplishments and future directions in this field, with emphasis on developments over the past 10 years.