Activation of latent transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) by alphavbeta6 integrin is critical in the pathogenesis of lung injury and fibrosis. We have previously demonstrated that the stimulation of protease activated receptor 1 promotes alphavbeta6 integrin-mediated TGF-beta activation via RhoA, which is known to modulate cell contraction. However, whether other G protein-coupled receptors can also induce alphavbeta6 integrin-mediated TGF-beta activation is unknown; in addition, the alphavbeta6 integrin signaling pathway has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces alphavbeta6-mediated TGF-beta activation in human epithelial cells via both RhoA and Rho kinase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that LPA-induced alphavbeta6 integrin-mediated TGF-beta activity is mediated via the LPA2 receptor, which signals via G alpha(q). Finally, we show that the expression levels of both the LPA2 receptor and alphavbeta6 integrin are up-regulated and are spatially and temporally associated following bleomycin-induced lung injury. Furthermore, both the LPA2 receptor and alphavbeta6 integrin are up-regulated in the overlying epithelial areas of fibrosis in patients with usual interstitial pneumonia. These studies demonstrate that LPA induces alphavbeta6 integrin-mediated TGF-beta activation in epithelial cells via LPA2, G alpha(q), RhoA, and Rho kinase, and that this pathway might be clinically relevant to the development of lung injury and fibrosis.