The effects of pine pollen extract (PE) on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated. The oral administration of PE (100 and 200 mg/kg per day) for 21 days after subcutaneous immunization with FCA, significantly reduced hindpaw swelling and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) compared with the FCA-induced arthritis group. Treatment with the PE (100 mg/kg) also decreased the serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol contents compared with those of the arthritis group. Since CIA is a model of some types of human autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the study examined whether PE is efficacious against CIA in mice and investigated the possible antioxidant potential of PE on CIA. Arthritis in DBA/1J mice was induced by subcutaneous immunization with bovine type II collagen. PE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered once daily for 49 days after initial immunization with type II collagen. The arthritis score and paw edema were markedly suppressed in the groups treated with PE. Moreover, administration of PE (100 mg/kg) for 49 days reduced the serum levels of rheumatoid factor, anti-type II collagen antibody, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, protein carbonyl, advanced glycation endproducts, malondialdehyde and LDL-cholesterol compared with that of CIA mice. These results suggest that the pine pollen might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders.