Dopamine D1 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with prophylactic lithium response in bipolar disorder

Pharmacopsychiatry. 2009 Jan;42(1):20-2. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1085441. Epub 2009 Jan 19.


Background: Previously, we have found an association between the -48 A/G polymorphism of the dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) gene and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible association of this polymorphism with the quality of the prophylactic lithium response in bipolar patients.

Methods: Ninety-two patients (39 male, 53 female), aged 30-77 (mean: 54 years) were studied. They have received lithium for prophylactic purposes for 5-27 years (mean: 15 years). Twenty-four patients were identified as excellent lithium responders (ER), 48 patients as partial responders (PR), and 20 patients were non-responders (NR). They all were genotyped for -48 A/G polymorphism of the DRD1 gene.

Results: The frequency of G/G genotype in ER, PR, and NR patients was 21%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, and the frequency of G allele was 58%, 76%, and 80%, respectively.

Discussion: The results obtained suggest that the higher frequency of G allele, and G/G genotype, which has been associated with a predisposition to bipolar illness, is also connected with a poorer prophylactic effect of lithium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antimanic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bipolar Disorder / genetics*
  • Bipolar Disorder / prevention & control*
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Lithium Chloride / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Receptors, Dopamine D1 / genetics*


  • Antimanic Agents
  • Receptors, Dopamine D1
  • Lithium Chloride