Effects of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecules, and oxidative stress in normal-weight and overweight young adults

Metabolism. 2009 Feb;58(2):254-62. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.09.022.

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine whether short-term antioxidant (AOX) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecule levels, and oxidative stress in overweight young adults. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study tested the effects of AOXs on measures of insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), endothelial adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule, and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), adiponectin, and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides) in overweight and normal-weight individuals (N = 48, 18-30 years). Participants received either AOX (vitamin E, 800 IU; vitamin C, 500 mg; beta-carotene, 10 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks. The HOMA values were initially higher in the overweight subjects and were lowered with AOX by week 8 (15% reduction, P = .02). Adiponectin increased in both AOX groups. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 decreased in overweight AOX-treated groups by 6% and 13%, respectively (P < .05). Plasma lipid hydroperoxides were reduced by 0.31 and 0.70 nmol/mL in the normal-weight and overweight AOX-treated groups, respectively, by week 8 (P < .05). Antioxidant supplementation moderately lowers HOMA and endothelial adhesion molecule levels in overweight young adults. A potential mechanism to explain this finding is the reduction in oxidative stress by AOX. Long-term studies are needed to determine whether AOXs are effective in suppressing diabetes or vascular activation over time.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage*
  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Eating
  • Endothelial Cells / cytology
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Lipid Peroxidation / physiology
  • Male
  • Overweight / drug therapy*
  • Overweight / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism
  • Vitamin E / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage
  • Young Adult
  • beta Carotene / administration & dosage

Substances

  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • Adiponectin
  • Antioxidants
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Vitamins
  • beta Carotene
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Vitamin E
  • Ascorbic Acid