Use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk of gastric or oesophageal adenocarcinomas. We examined the association between self-reported use of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs in the earlier 12 months and gastric non-cardia (N=182), gastric cardia (N=178), and oesophageal adenocarcinomas (N=228) in a prospective cohort (N=311 115) followed for 7 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) come from Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Use of any aspirin (HR, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.47-0.86) or other NSAIDs (0.68, 0.51-0.92) was associated with a significantly lower risk of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. Neither aspirin (0.86, 0.61-1.20) nor other NSAIDs (0.91, 0.67-1.22) had a significant association with gastric cardia cancer. We found no significant association between using aspirin (1.00, 0.73-1.37) or other NSAIDs (0.90, 69-1.17) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We also performed a meta-analysis of the association between the use of NSAIDs and risk of gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In this analysis, aspirin use was inversely associated with both gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinomas, with summary odds ratios (95% CI) for non-cardia, cardia, and oesophageal adenocarcinomas of 0.64 (0.52-0.80), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), and 0.64 (0.52-0.79), respectively. The corresponding numbers for other NSAIDs were 0.68 (0.57-0.81), 0.80 (0.67-0.95), and 0.65 (0.50-0.85), respectively.