The results of The Tajimi Study (a population-based prevalence survey of glaucoma in Tajimi City performed by the Japan Glaucoma Society) are summarized. The Tajimi Study was carried out from September, 2000 to October, 2001 to investigate the prevalence of glaucoma among residents aged 40 years old or over in Tajimi. Seventy-eight point one % of 3,870 eligible people from 4,000 subjects who had been randomly selected from the 54,165 over 40 years old residents in Tajimi participated in the study. Estimated prevalence of all glaucoma and glaucoma/suspected glaucoma were 5.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2-5.8)% and 7.5 (95% CI, 6.5-8.4)%. The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and secondary glaucoma (SG) were 3.9 (95% CI, 3.2-4.6)%, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.9)%, and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2-0.7)%, respectively. Including suspected cases, the prevalence of POAG, PACG, and SG was 6.0 (5.1-6.8)%, 0.8 (0.5-1.2)%, 0.7 (0.4-1.0)%. High intraocular pressure, myopia, and older age were shown to be statistically significant risk factors for POAG. It was suggested that the Frequency Doubling Technology is a good candidate as a screening test for glaucoma. The leading cause of low vision was cataracts. Investigation of refractive status showed that the prevalence of myopia(spherical equivalence [SE] < 0.5 diopters) and high myopia (SE < -5.0 diopters) was 41.8 (40.0-43.6)% and 8.2 (7.2-9.2)%, respectively.