Enhanced decolorization and biodegradation of textile azo dye Scarlet R by using developed microbial consortium-GR

Bioresour Technol. 2009 May;100(9):2493-500. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.013. Epub 2009 Jan 20.


A developed consortium-GR, consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 (PV) and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 (MG), completely decolorized an azo dye Scarlet R under static anoxic condition with an average decolorization rate of 16,666 microg h(-1); which is much faster than that of the pure cultures (PV, 3571 microg h(-1); MG, 2500 microg h(-1)). Consortium-GR gave best decolorization performance with nearly complete mineralization of Scarlet R (over 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 3h, much shorter relative to the individual strains. Induction in the riboflavin reductase and NADH-DCIP reductase was observed in the consortium, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes during the fast decolorization process. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis showed that 1,4-benzenediamine was formed during decolorization/degradation of Scarlet R by consortium-GR. Phytotoxicity studies revealed no toxicity of the biodegraded products of Scarlet R by consortium-GR. In addition, consortium-GR applied for mixture of industrial dyes showed 88% decolorization under static condition with significant reduction in TOC (62%) and COD (68%) within 72 h, suggesting potential application of this microbial consortium in bioremediation of dye-containing wastewater.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Azo Compounds / chemistry
  • Azo Compounds / metabolism*
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Carbon / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Coloring Agents / chemistry
  • Coloring Agents / metabolism*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Micrococcus / enzymology
  • Micrococcus / metabolism*
  • Nitrogen / chemistry
  • Proteus vulgaris / enzymology
  • Proteus vulgaris / metabolism*
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Textile Industry*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / metabolism*


  • Azo Compounds
  • Coloring Agents
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Carbon
  • Nitrogen