Headache is a leading cause for consultation in many patients. We compared the agreement between non-neurologist physicians and neurologists in diagnosis of the cause of headache among 19,854 patients attending the neurology clinic of Yahyanejad Hospital, Babol, from 1995 to 2004, who were first diagnosed by the non-neurologist physician. The diagnoses of the neurologists were based on International Headache Society criteria. The commonest causes of headache diagnosed by the neurologist were tension-type and migraine, while sinusitis and ophthalmic disorders were the commonest diagnoses of the non-neurologist physicians. There is a need to inform physicians about the common causes of headache to ensure prompt and correct diagnosis.