The proper diagnosis of submucosal upper gastrointestinal tract mass lesions by endoscopy or barium study is difficult. Differentiation between submucosal tumors, vascular structures, and extrinsic organs is often impossible. We performed endoscopic ultrasound examination of 91 patients with upper gastrointestinal submucosal mass lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound was accurate in determining the site of origin in 48 of 50 cases where pathology or angiography comparison was available. Leiomyoma, lipoma, varices, and carcinoma had characteristic ultrasonographic findings. Endoscopic ultrasound is a useful procedure in the evaluation of upper gastrointestinal submucosal mass lesions.