Models of addiction treatment that view the sources and solutions to severe alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems as rooted within the vulnerability and resiliency of each individual stand in marked contrast to models that focus on the ecology of AOD problem development and resolution via complex interactions between individuals, families, and communities. An integration of the latter model into mainstream addiction treatment would necessitate a reconstruction of the treatment-community relationship and new approaches to community resource development and mobilization. Such an integration would redefine core addiction treatment services and to whom, by whom, when, where, and for how long such services are delivered. This article draws on historical and contemporary events in the history of addiction treatment and recovery in the United States to illuminate the relationship between recovery and community. Principles and strategies that could guide the development and mobilization of community resources to support the long-term recovery of individuals and families are identified.