Both cDNA and genomic clones for the nuclear genes encoding chloroplast (cp) (gapA and gapB) and cytosolic (gapC) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Arabidopsis thaliana have been isolated and characterized. Genomic Southern-blot analyses indicate that there is only one copy of each gapA, gapB and gapC gene in A. thaliana. Comparison of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences shows that the A and B subunits are highly similar (80% positional aa identity), while there is less similarity between the cp and cytosolic subunits (45% aa identity). These relationships are consistent with the idea that the cp and cytosolic GAPDHs evolved from different lineages, as suggested in our previous study of tobacco GAPDHs [Shih et al., Cell 47 (1986) 73-80]. In addition, the chromosomal locations for the three gap genes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping; the three gap genes are not closely linked, gapA (55.8 cM) and gapC (0.0 cM) are on chromosome 3, and gapB (51.3 cM) is on chromosome 1.