Skeletal muscle demonstrates extraordinary mutability in its responses to exercise of different modes, intensity, and duration, which must involve alterations of muscle protein turnover, both acutely and chronically. Here, we bring together information on the alterations in the rates of synthesis and degradation of human muscle protein by different types of exercise and the influences of nutrition, age, and sexual dimorphism. Where possible, we summarize the likely changes in activity of signaling proteins associated with control of protein turnover. Exercise of both the resistance and nonresistance types appears to depress muscle protein synthesis (MPS), whereas muscle protein breakdown (MPB) probably remains unchanged during exercise. However, both MPS and MPB are elevated after exercise in the fasted state, when net muscle protein balance remains negative. Positive net balance is achieved only when amino acid availability is increased, thereby raising MPS markedly. However, postexercise-increased amino acid availability is less important for inhibiting MPB than insulin, the secretion of which is stimulated most by glucose availability, without itself stimulating MPS. Exercise training appears to increase basal muscle protein turnover, with differential responses of the myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein fractions to acute exercise in the trained state. Aging reduces the responses of myofibrillar protein and anabolic signaling to resistance exercise. There appear to be few, if any, differences in the response of young women and young men to acute exercise, although there are indications that, in older women, the responses may be blunted more than in older men.