Principles of facial trauma: orbital fracture management

J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Jan;20(1):101-4. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318190e1b6.


Often, complex, optimal management of the orbital fracture is directly dependent on thorough initial evaluation, correct injury assessment, and timely initiation of chosen therapy. Most often, secondary to assault or motor vehicle collision, these fractures are frequently associated with additional traumatic injury. With recent advances in imaging, alloplastic materials, and bone fixation technology, the evolution of orbital fracture management now enables reconstruction of even the most severe injuries.

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Traffic
  • Biocompatible Materials / therapeutic use
  • Bone Transplantation
  • Ectropion / etiology
  • Enophthalmos / etiology
  • Facial Injuries / surgery
  • Fracture Fixation / methods
  • Humans
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology
  • Optic Nerve Injuries / diagnosis
  • Optic Nerve Injuries / surgery
  • Orbit / injuries
  • Orbital Fractures / diagnosis
  • Orbital Fractures / surgery*
  • Physical Examination
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Violence


  • Biocompatible Materials