A randomised pilot Phase II study of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) or epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) given 2 weekly with pegfilgrastim (accelerated) vs 3 weekly (standard) for women with early breast cancer

Br J Cancer. 2009 Jan 27;100(2):305-10. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604862.


Accelerated (dose-dense) chemotherapy, in which the frequency of administration is increased without changing total dose or duration, may increase the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. We performed a randomised Phase II study to assess the safety and relative toxicity of AC (doxorubicin; cyclophosphamide) vs E(epirubicin)C given by conventional or accelerated schedules as neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer. Furthermore, the relative toxicity of doxorubicin and epirubicin remains uncertain. Patients were randomised to one of four arms; four courses of standard 3 weekly cyclophosphamide 600 mg m(-2) in combination with doxorubicin 60 mg m(-2) (AC) vs epirubicin 90 mg m(-2) (EC) 3 weekly vs the same regimens administered every 2 weeks with pegfilgrastim (G-CSF). A total of 126 patients were treated, 42 with standard AC, 42 with accelerated AC, 19 with standard EC and 23 with accelerated EC. Significantly more grade 3/4 day one neutropenia was seen with standard (6/61, 10%) compared to accelerated (0/65,) regimens (P=0.01). A trend towards more neutropenic sepsis was seen in the combined standard and accelerated AC arms (12/84, 14%) compared to the combined EC arms (1/42, 2%), P=0.06. Falls in left ventricular ejection fraction were not increased with accelerated treatment. Accelerated AC and EC with pegfilgrastim are safe and feasible regimens in the treatment of early breast cancer with less neutropenia than conventional 3 weekly schedules.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Breast Neoplasms / complications
  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / complications
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Doxorubicin / administration & dosage
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Epirubicin / administration & dosage
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Filgrastim
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Maximum Tolerated Dose
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neutropenia / drug therapy*
  • Patient Selection
  • Pilot Projects
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Prognosis
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • pegfilgrastim
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Epirubicin
  • Doxorubicin
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Filgrastim