Prevalence and awareness of CKD among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Feb;53(2):238-47. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.08.035.


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to end-stage renal disease and is a growing epidemic throughout the world. In the United States, African Americans have an incidence of end-stage renal disease 4 times that of whites.

Study design: Cross-sectional to examine the prevalence and awareness of CKD in African Americans.

Setting & participants: Observational cohort in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS).

Predictor: CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), the presence of albuminuria, or dialysis therapy.

Outcomes & measurements: Data from the JHS were analyzed. Medical history, including disease awareness and drug therapy, anthropometric measurements, and serum and urine samples, were obtained from JHS participants at the baseline visit. Associations between CKD prevalence and awareness and selected demographic, socioeconomic, health care access, and disease status parameters were assessed by using logistic regression models.

Results: The prevalence of CKD in the JHS was 20%; CKD awareness was only 15.8%. Older participants had a greater prevalence, but also were more aware of CKD. Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increasing age and waist circumference, and being single or less physically active were associated with CKD. Only advancing CKD stage was associated with awareness.

Limitations: Cross-sectional assessment, single urine measurement.

Conclusions: The JHS has a high prevalence and low awareness of CKD, especially in those with less severe disease status. This emphasizes the need for earlier diagnosis and increased education of health care providers and the general population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Albuminuria
  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / psychology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mississippi / epidemiology
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / ethnology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / psychology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology