First birth of an animal from an extinct subspecies (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) by cloning

Theriogenology. 2009 Apr 1;71(6):1026-34. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.11.005. Epub 2009 Jan 23.


Two experiments have been performed to clone the bucardo, an extinct wild goat. The karyoplasts were thawed fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies, obtained and cryopreserved in 1999 from the last living specimen, a female, which died in 2000. Cytoplasts were mature oocytes collected from the oviducts of superovulated domestic goats. Oocytes were enucleated and coupled to bucardo's fibroblasts by electrofusion. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 36h or 7d and transferred to either Spanish ibex or hybrid (Spanish ibex malex domestic goat) synchronized recipients. Embryos were placed, according to their developmental stage, into the oviduct or into the uterine horn ipsilateral to an ovulated ovary. Pregnancy was monitored through their plasmatic PAG levels. In Experiment 1, 285 embryos were reconstructed and 30 of them were transferred at the 3- to 6-cells stage to 5 recipients. The remaining embryos were further cultured to day 7, and 24 of them transferred at compact morula/blastocyst stage to 8 recipients. In Experiment 2, 154 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 44 recipients at the 3- to 6-cells stage. Pregnancies were attained in 0/8 and 7/49 of the uterine and oviduct-transferred recipients, respectively. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term, displaying very high PAG levels. One morphologically normal bucardo female was obtained by caesarean section. The newborn died some minutes after birth due to physical defects in lungs. Nuclear DNA confirmed that the clone was genetically identical to the bucardo's donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first animal born from an extinct subspecies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cesarean Section / veterinary
  • Cloning, Organism / methods*
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Cryopreservation / veterinary
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / analysis
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / chemistry
  • Embryo Culture Techniques / veterinary
  • Embryo Transfer / veterinary
  • Extinction, Biological*
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts / ultrastructure
  • Glycoproteins / blood
  • Goats / genetics*
  • Live Birth / veterinary*
  • Lung / abnormalities
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Transfer Techniques / veterinary
  • Oocytes / ultrastructure
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Proteins / blood


  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • Glycoproteins
  • Pregnancy Proteins