During myelin formation, vast amounts of specialized membrane proteins and lipids are trafficked toward the growing sheath in cell surface-directed transport vesicles. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment proteins (SNAPs) are important components of molecular complexes required for membrane fusion. We have analyzed the expression profile and molecular interactions of SNAP-29 in the nervous system. In addition to its known enrichment in neuronal synapses, SNAP-29 is abundant in oligodendrocytes during myelination and in noncompact myelin of the peripheral nervous system. By yeast two-hybrid screen and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that the GTPases Rab3A, Rab24, and septin 4 bind to the N-terminal domain of SNAP-29. The interaction with Rab24 or septin 4 was GTP independent. In contrast, interaction between SNAP-29 and Rab3A was GTP dependent, and colocalization was extensive both in synapses and in myelinating glia. In HEK293 cells, cytoplasmic SNAP-29 pools were redistributed upon coexpression with Rab3A, and surface-directed trafficking of myelin proteolipid protein was enhanced by overexpression of SNAP-29 and Rab3A. Interestingly, the abundance of SNAP-29 in sciatic nerves was increased during remyelination and in a rat model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, two pathological situations with increased myelin membrane biogenesis. We suggest that Rab3A may regulate SNAP-29-mediated membrane fusion during myelination.