Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the precision of central hip arthroscopy in the assessment and treatment of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) avoiding the posterolateral portal, with its close proximity to the main arterial blood supply of the femoral head, the medial circumflex femoral artery.
Methods: Seven human cadaveric hips underwent arthroscopic trimming of the acetabular labrum and rim along a preoperatively defined 105 degrees arc of resection for treatment of a presumed pincer-type lesion. After the arthroscopic procedure, all specimens were dissected and measured for evaluation of the location, quantity, and quality of the area undergoing resection.
Results: The difference between the actual and planned arc of resection was 18.7 degrees +/- 4.7 degrees (range, 2 degrees to 34 degrees). This was mainly because of a lack of accuracy in the presumed posterior starting point (PSP), with a mean deviation of 19 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees (range, 10 degrees to 36 degrees). Correlation analysis showed that variance in the arc of resection was mainly dependent on the PSP (r = 0.739, P = .058).
Conclusions: Central hip arthroscopy is a feasible option in treating anterosuperior pincer-type FAI by use of the anterior and anterolateral portals only. This cadaveric study showed that there is a significant risk of underestimating the actual arc of resection compared with the planned arc of resection for posterosuperior pincer-type lesions because of the modest accuracy in determining the PSP of the resection.
Clinical relevance: Accurate preoperative planning and arthroscopic identification of anatomic landmarks at the acetabular side are crucial for the definition of the appropriate starting and ending points in the treatment of pincer-type FAI. Whereas anterosuperior pincer-type lesions can be addressed very precisely with our technique, the actual resection of posterosuperior lesions averaged 19 degrees less than the planned resection, which may have clinical implications.