A home-based nurse-coached inspiratory muscle training intervention in heart failure

Appl Nurs Res. 2009 Feb;22(1):18-25. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2007.02.002.


People with heart failure (HF) are living longer but with disabling dyspnea that erodes quality of life (QOL). Decreased strength of inspiratory muscles (IMs) may contribute to dyspnea in HF, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve the strength of IMs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 3-month nurse-coached IMT program. Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory directed nursing interventions. This randomized controlled trial employed an experimental group (IMT) and a control group (education). Data were collected during six home visits. Outcome measures included maximal inspiratory pressure, perceived dyspnea, self-efficacy, and health-related QOL. Significant differences in PI(max), dyspnea, and respiratory rate were found. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Dyspnea / physiopathology
  • Dyspnea / therapy*
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology*
  • Home Care Services*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscles / physiopathology*
  • Nurse-Patient Relations*
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Quality of Life