Immunotoxicity and environment: immunodysregulation and systemic inflammation in children

Toxicol Pathol. 2009 Feb;37(2):161-9. doi: 10.1177/0192623308329340. Epub 2009 Jan 26.


Environmental pollutants, chemicals, and drugs have an impact on children's immune system development. Mexico City (MC) children exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants exhibit chronic respiratory inflammation, systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to severe air pollution plays a role in the immune responses of asymptomatic, apparently healthy children. Blood measurements for markers of immune function, inflammatory mediators, and molecules interacting with the lipopolysaccharide recognition complex were obtained from two cohorts of matched children (aged 9.7 +/- 1.2 years) from southwest Mexico City (SWMC) (n = 66) and from a control city (n = 93) with criteria pollutant levels below current standards. MC children exhibited significant decreases in the numbers of natural killer cells (p = .003) and increased numbers of mCD14+ monocytes (p < .001) and CD8+ cells (p = .02). Lower concentrations of interferon gamma (p = .009) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (p < .001), an endotoxin tolerance-like state, systemic inflammation, and an anti-inflammatory response were also present in the highly exposed children. C-reactive protein and the prostaglandin E metabolite levels were positively correlated with twenty-four- and forty-eight-hour cumulative concentrations of PM(2.5). Exposure to urban air pollution is associated with immunodysregulation and systemic inflammation in children and is a major health threat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / analysis
  • Air Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Air Pollution / adverse effects*
  • Air Pollution / analysis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Environmental Exposure / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / chemically induced*
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects
  • Inhalation Exposure / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Mexico
  • Particle Size
  • Particulate Matter
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urban Health


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter