Based on the available evidence, we, the Vaccine Advisory Committee (CAV) of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics (Asociación Española de Pediatría, AEP), provide information about and comments on vaccine-related innovation during 2008. Modifications to the Vaccine Schedule for 2009 are also discussed. The importance of the recommendation of administration of a varicella booster at start of school (3-4 years of age) is highlighted according to the technical specifications of one of the vaccines. The importance of making the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine universally available is reiterated in accordance with the unquestionable results of scientific tests, WHO recommendations, the posture adopted by the majority of neighboring European countries, and the decision taken in 2006 by the autonomous community of Madrid (Spain). New scientific reasons are provided, corroborating the recommendation made by this committee in 2008, for the implementation by Spanish pediatricians of the vaccine against rotavirus and human papilloma virus. With regard to the latter, vaccination should be from 11 to 16 years of age, and then extended, in accordance with the technical specifications of the available vaccine preparations, to 26 years of age. As part of the recommendations, we insist that children in risk groups should be given flu vaccine and hepatitis A vaccine. The committee considers that these two vaccines must also be given, when pediatricians consider it appropriate, to children other than those in risk groups. This recommendation can be regarded as the first step towards a future recommendation of universal vaccination. Finally, this year we include an appendix with recommendations and vaccination strategies to be followed in children who have not previously received vaccines or who have not been completely immunized.