Prolonged use of continuous glucose monitors in children with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or intensive multiple-daily injection therapy

Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Apr;10(2):91-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2008.00476.x. Epub 2008 Oct 20.


Objective: For continuous glucose sensors to improve the treatment of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D), they must be accurate, comfortable to wear, and easy to use. We conducted a pilot study of the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (Abbott Diabetes Care) to examine the feasibility of daily use of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) in an extended ambulatory setting.

Methods: Following a 13-wk trial of daily Navigator use, 45 children with T1D [10.7 +/- 3.7 yr, range 4.6-17.6, 24 using insulin pumps; continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and 21 using glargine-based multiple daily injections (MDI)] used the Navigator for an additional 13 wk.

Results: Navigator use was initially slightly higher in the CSII users than in the MDI users but declined similarly in both groups by 22-26 wk. After 26 wk, 11 (46%) of 24 CSII users and 7 (33%) of 21 MDI users were using the CGM at least 5 d a week. No baseline demographic or clinical factors were predictive of the amount of sensor use at 26 wk. However, Navigator use during weeks 1-13 and scores on a CGM satisfaction survey at 13 wk were predictive of use in weeks 22-26.

Conclusions: CGM was generally well-tolerated in children with T1D for more than 6 months, and early acceptance of CGM was predictive of extended use of the device. Although many subjects and parents found CGM valuable, the declining usage over time underscores the need to develop new technologies and strategies to increase acceptance, effectiveness, and long-term use of these devices in youth with T1D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / instrumentation*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Male
  • Patient Compliance
  • Pilot Projects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin