Objective: We investigated influences of a 12-h fast, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) on total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to provide reference percentiles for TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C of patients with good diabetes control (HbA1c < 7.5%) and normal weight (BMI < 90th percentile).
Method: A cross-sectional analysis of the diabetes documentation and quality management system using the diabetes data acquisition system for prospective surveillance (DPV) software included 29 979 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) aged 1-20 yr (52.4% male) from 253 diabetes centers in Germany and Austria.
Results: Fasting had no relevant influence on TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Multivariate regression analysis revealed strongest dependences of cholesterol on gender and HbA1c followed by BMI and age. Reference cholesterol percentiles of well-controlled and normal weight patients showed TC >or=4.40 mmol/L (170 mg/dL) corresponding to the 50th percentile in females and the 75th percentile in males. LDL-C >or=2.59 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) corresponded to the 50th-75th percentile in females and the 75th percentile in males.
Conclusions: (i) Fasting is no precondition for the determination of TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C; (ii) TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C are strongest associated with gender and HbA1c followed by BMI and age; (iii) Gender- and age-adjusted cholesterol percentiles of well-controlled and normal weight patients with T1DM may serve as reference values and are similar to healthy German children; and (iv) Single target values for TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C based on healthy individuals' data do not sufficiently characterize abnormal cholesterol levels in young patients with T1DM.