Nesfatin-1 is a novel satiety molecule in the hypothalamus and is also present in peripheral tissues. Here we sought to identify the active segment of nesfatin-1 and to determine the mechanisms of its action after peripheral administration in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of nesfatin-1 suppressed food intake in a dose-dependent manner. Nesfatin-1 has three distinct segments; we tested the effect of each segment on food intake. Injection of the midsegment decreased food intake under leptin-resistant conditions such as db/db mice and mice fed a high-fat diet. After injection of the midsegment, expression of c-Fos was significantly activated in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) but not in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus; the nicotinic cholinergic pathway to the NTS contributed to midsegment-induced anorexia. Midsegment injection significantly increased expression of proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript genes in the NTS but not in the arcuate nucleus. Investigation of mutant midsegments demonstrated that a region with amino acid sequence similarity to the active site of agouti-related peptide was indispensable for anorexigenic induction. Our findings indicate that the midsegment of nesfatin-1 causes anorexia, possibly by activating POMC and CART neurons in the NTS via a leptin-independent mechanism after peripheral stimulation.