Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent in our society, with an incidence of 10 to 30 percent. It is a major cost to society in terms of health care expenditure and reduced productivity. Nonpharmacologic interventions have been studied and shown to produce reliable and sustained improvements in sleep patterns of patients with insomnia. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia has multiple components, including cognitive psychotherapy, sleep hygiene, stimulus control, sleep restriction, paradoxical intention, and relaxation therapy. Cognitive psychotherapy involves identifying a patient's dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, challenging their validity, and replacing them with more adaptive substitutes. Sleep hygiene education teaches patients about good sleep habits. Stimulus control therapy helps patients to associate the bedroom with sleep and sex only, and not other wakeful activities. Sleep restriction therapy consists of limiting time in bed to maximize sleep efficiency. Paradoxical intention seeks to remove the fear of sleep by advising the patient to remain awake. Relaxation therapies are techniques taught to patients to reduce high levels of arousal that interfere with sleep. Cognitive behavior therapy involves four to eight weekly sessions of 60 to 90 minutes each, and should be used more frequently as initial therapy for chronic insomnia.