Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009 Feb 1;14(2):E103-7.


Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel, caused by successive exposures to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development, leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on when and for how long the overexposure to fluoride occurs, the individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutritional factors and bone growth. The risk period for esthetic changes in permanent teeth is between 20 and 30 months of age. The recommended level for daily fluoride intake is 0.05 - 0.07 mg F/Kg/day, which is considered of great help in preventing dental caries, acting in remineralization. A daily intake above this safe level leads to an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Currently recommended procedures for diagnosis of fluorosis should discriminate between symmetrical and asymmetrical and/or discrete patterns of opaque defects. Fluorosis can be prevented by having an adequate knowledge of the fluoride sources, knowing how to manage this issue and therefore, avoid overexposure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Fluorosis, Dental* / diagnosis
  • Fluorosis, Dental* / etiology
  • Fluorosis, Dental* / prevention & control
  • Fluorosis, Dental* / therapy
  • Humans