Effects of fat supplementation on glycaemic response and gastric emptying in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

Diabet Med. 2008 Sep;25(9):1030-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02530.x.


Aims: To compare the glycaemic response to meals with different fat content in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to investigate associations with gastric emptying.

Methods: In this randomized, cross-over study, paired results were obtained from seven adolescents with T1DM who ingested on different days two meals with the same carbohydrate and protein content, but different fat and energy content (2 and 38 g fat, 320 and 640 kcal, respectively). Paracetamol was mixed into the meals and gastric emptying was estimated by the paracetamol absorption method. All subjects were normoglycaemic and given 7 IU insulin aspart at commencement of ingestion. Postprandial blood samples were taken during 4 h.

Results: The areas under the curves for plasma glucose and serum paracetamol concentrations were larger after the low-fat than after the high-fat meal during the first 2 h (P = 0.047 and P = 0.041, respectively). The difference between meals in time-to-peak in glucose and paracetamol concentrations did not reach statistical significance (high-fat vs. low-fat meal: 210 min (120-240) vs. 120 min (50-240), P = 0.080 and 120 min (75-180) vs. 60 min (60-120), P = 0.051, respectively). Changes in glucose concentrations correlated with simultaneous changes in paracetamol concentrations (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that the initial glycaemic response is reduced after a meal with higher compared with a meal with lower fat content in adolescents with T1DM given a rapid-acting insulin analogue preprandially. The type and dose of preprandial insulin may need adjustment to the fat content of the meal to reach postprandial normoglycaemia.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / pharmacokinetics
  • Adolescent
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Gastric Emptying / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Lipid Metabolism / physiology
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fats
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Acetaminophen