Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation is an initial event in liver fibrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play essential roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and fat metabolism. In this study, we showed that down-regulation of two over-expressed miRNAs, miR-27a and 27b allowed culture-activated rat HSCs to switch to a more quiescent HSC phenotype, with restored cytoplasmic lipid droplets and decreased cell proliferation. Mechanistically, retinoid X receptor alpha was confirmed to be the target of miR-27a and 27b. These results indicated a new role and mechanism of miR-27a and 27b in regulating fat metabolism and cell proliferation during HSCs activation.